Realistic capturing of various interactions at interfaces is a challenging problem for SPH-based simulation. Previous works have mainly considered a single type of interaction, while real-world phenomena typically exhibit multiple interactions at different interfaces. For instance, when cracking an egg, there are simultaneous interactions between air, egg white, egg yolk, and the shell. To conveniently handle all interactions simultaneously in a single simulation, a versatile approach is critical. In this paper, we present a new approach to the surface tension model based on pairwise interaction forces; its basis is to use a larger number of neighboring particles. Our model is stable, conserves momentum, and furthermore, prevents the particle clustering problem which commonly occurs at the free surface. It can be applied to simultaneous interactions at multiple interfaces (e.g. fluid-solid and fluid-fluid). Our method is versatile, physically plausible and easy-to-implement.We also consider the close connection between droplets and bubbles, and show how to animate bubbles in air as droplets, with the help of a new surface particle detection method. Examples are provided to demonstrate the capabilities and effectiveness of our approach.
Versatile Interactions at Interfaces for SPH-Based Simulations
ACM SIGGRAPH/EG Symposium on Computer Animation 2016.